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List of (0620) IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers

List of (0620) IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers

Other IGCSE Past Exam Paper Downloads

The Main Objectives To Attain When Doing These (0620) IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers

igcse chemistry past year papers download 0620

This IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers are created especially for both public schools and private/ international school students alike. The IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers enables apprentices to:

  • increase their knowledge of the technological world
  • take an informed attention in scientific matters
  • recognise the practicality (and restrictions) of scientific method
  • develop appropriate attitudes, such as a concern for precision and care
  • grow curiosity in, and care for, the environment
  • better understand the influence and limitations placed on scientific study by culture, economy, technology, integrities, the community and the environment
  • develop an understanding of the scientific skills essential for both further study and everyday life.
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The 6 Primary Objectives for teachers and scholars when learning for (0620) IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers are:

#1 provide a pleasant and meaningful educational understanding for all learners, whether or not they go on to study science beyond this level.

#2 enable learners to acquire adequate information and consideration to become self-assured people in a technological world and develop a knowledgeable interest in scientific matters

#3 allow learners to recognise that science is evidence based and understand the usefulness, and the limitations, of scientific method

#4 develop supports that are relevant to the study and preparation of chemistry, encourage resourceful and safe practices

#5 develop attitudes relevant to chemistry such as concern for accurateness and care

#6 enable apprentices to appreciate that science is subject to social, economic, technological, ethical, legal, political and cultural influences and limitations

#7 Understand that the applications of science may be both valuable and harmful to the individual, the public and the environment.

Subject Contents for the 6 Important Sections Discussed Above for (0620) IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers

In all the following, students are required to apply or relate their understanding to a range of situations or scenarios. Candidates should be able to make simple choices based upon the analysis and evaluation of information provided when doing these IGCSE Chemistry past year papers.

Candidates should assume to do the following if they are doing CORE:

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1 The particulate nature of matter

1.1 The particulate nature of matter

  • Identify the distinguishing properties of solids, liquids and gases
  • Explain the structure of solids, liquids and gases in terms of particle separation, arrangement and types of motion
  • Illustrate changes of state in terms of melting, boiling, evaporation, freezing, condensation and sublimation
  • Describe qualitatively the pressure and temperature of a gas in terms of the motion of its particles
  • In IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers, students are required to summarise of the random motion of particles in a suspension (sometimes known as Brownian motion) as evidence for the kinetic particle (atoms, molecules or ions) model of matter
  • Describe and explain diffusion

2 Experimental techniques

2.1 Measurement

  • List the appropriate apparatus for the measurement of time, temperature, mass and volume, including burettes, pipettes and measuring cylinders

2.2 Purity

2.2.1 Criteria of purity

  • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of paper chromatography
  • Interpret easy chromatograms
  • State the substances and measure their purity from melting point and boiling point data
  • Appreciate the importance of purity in substances in day-to-day life, e.g. food and medicine

2.2.2 Methods of purification

  • Describe and explain approaches of purification by the use of a suitable solvent, filtration, crystallisation and distillation (including use of a fractionating column). (Refer to the fractional distillation of petroleum in section 14.2 and products of fermentation in section 14.6.)
  • Analyse suitable purification methods, given information about the substances involved

3 Atoms, elements and compounds

3.1 Atomic structure and the Periodic Table

  • State the relative charges and approximate relative masses of protons, neutrons and electrons
  • Explain the proton number (atomic number) as the quantity of protons in the nucleus of an atom
  • Define nucleon number (mass number) as the total amount of protons and neutrons in the

nucleus of an atom

  • Practice proton number and the simple structure of atoms to explain the basis of the Periodic Table

(see section 9), with special reference to the elements of proton number 1 to 20
• Define isotopes as atoms of the same element which have the same proton number but a different nucleon number for this IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers
• State the two types of isotopes as being radioactive and non-radioactive
• Assume one medical and one industrial use of radioactive isotopes
• Describe the build-up of electrons in ‘shells’ and know the consequence of the noble gas electronic structures and of the outer shell electrons. (The ideas of the distribution of electrons in s and p orbitals and in d block elements are not required.)

3.2.2 Ions and ionic bonds

  • Describe the development of ions by electron loss or gain
  • Define the formation of ionic bonds between fundamentals from Groups I and VII

3.2.3 Molecules and covalent bonds

  • Describe the formation of sole covalent ties in H2, Cl2, H2O, CH4, NH3 and HCl as the sharing

of pairs of electrons leading to the noble gas configuration

  • Call the variances in volatility, solubility and electrical conductivity between ionic and covalent compounds

3.2.4 Macromolecules

  • Label the giant covalent structures of graphite and diamond
  • Tell their structures to their uses, e.g. graphite as a grease and a conductor, and parallelogram in cutting tools

4 Stoichiometry

4.1 Stoichiometry

  • Use the signs of the elements and write the methods of simple compounds
  • Deduce the plan of a simple composite from the relative numbers of atoms present
  • Deduce the formula of a simple compound from a model or a diagrammatic illustration
  • Construct term equations and simple balanced chemical equations
  • Describe relative atomic mass, Ar, as the regular mass of naturally occurring particles of an element on a scale where the 12C atom has a mass of exactly 12 units
  • Outline relative molecular mass, Mr, as the sum of the relative atomic masses. (Relative formula mass or Mr will be used for ionic compounds.)

(Computing involving reacting masses in simple magnitudes may be set. Calculations will not include the mole concept.)

5 Electricity and chemistry

5.1 Electricity and chemistry

  • Define electrolysis as the failure of an ionic compound, molten or in aqueous solution, by the passageway of electricity
  • Describe the electrode products and the observations made during the electrolysis of:

–– molten lead(II) bromide

–– focused hydrochloric acid

–– concentrated aqueous sodium chloride

–– thinned sulfuric acid amongst inert electrodes (platinum or carbon)

  • State the general principle that metals or hydrogen are formed at the negative electrode (cathode), and that non-metals (other than hydrogen) are formed at the positive electrode (anode)
  • Forecast the products of the electrolysis of a quantified binary compound in the molten state
  • Describe the electroplating of metals
  • Summarize the uses of electroplating
  • Describe the details for the use of copper and (steel-cored) aluminium in cables, and why plastics and ceramics are used as paddings

6 Chemical energetics

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6.1 Energetics of a reaction

  • Describe the meaning of exothermic and endothermic reactions
  • Interpret energy level diagrams showing exothermic and endothermic reactions

6.2 Energy transfer

  • Recommend the release of heat energy by scorching fuels
  • State the use of hydrogen as a source of energy
  • Describe radioactive isotopes, such as 235U, as a source of energy

7 Chemical reactions

7.1 Physical and chemical changes

  • Identify physical and chemical changes, and recognize the changes between them

7.2 Rate (speediness) of response

  • Pronounce and explain the effect of concentration, particle size, catalysts (including enzymes) and temperature on the rate of reactions
  • Express the application of the above factors to the hazard of explosive combustion with fine

powders (e.g. flour mills) and gases (e.g. methane in mines)

  • Prove knowledge and understanding of a real-world method for investigating the rate of a reaction involving gas evolution
    • Construe data gotten from experiments concerned with rate of feedback

Note: Candidates should be encouraged to use the term rate rather than speed.

7.3 Reversible reactions

  • Understand that some natural reactions can be reversed by changing the reaction circumstances.

(Partial to the effects of heat and water on hydrated and anhydrous copper(II) sulfate and cobalt(II) chloride.) (Concept of balance is not required.)

7.4 Redox

  • Define oxidation and reduction in terms of oxygen loss/gain. (Oxidation state limited to its use to name ions, e.g. iron(II), iron(III), copper(II), manganate(VII).)

8 Acids, bases and salts

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8.1 The distinguishing properties of acids and bases

  • Describe the individual properties of acids as responses with metals, bases, carbonates and effect on litmus and methyl orange
  • Call the characteristic properties of bases as reactions with acids and with ammonium salts and effect on litmus and methyl orange
    • Utter neutrality and relative acidity and alkalinity in terms of pH measured using general indicator paper (whole numbers only)
  • Designate and explain the standing of controlling acidity in soil

8.2 Types of oxides

  • Classify oxides as either acidic or basic, related to metallic and non-metallic character

8.3 Research of salts

  • Validate knowledge and understanding of preparation, parting and distillation of salts as samples of some of the techniques specified in section 2.2.2 and the reactions stated in section 8.1

8.4 Identification of ions and gases

  • Express the following assessments to identify:
    aqueous cations:

aluminium, ammonium, calcium, chromium(III), copper(II), iron(II), iron(III) and zinc (using aqueous sodium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia as appropriate). (Formula of complex ions are not required.)

cations:

use of the flame test to identify lithium, sodium, potassium and copper(II)

anions:

carbonate (by reaction with diluted acid and then limewater), chloride, bromide and iodide (by reaction under acidic environments with aqueous silvery nitrate), nitrate (by reduction with aluminium), sulfate (by reaction under acidic conditions with aqueous barium ions) and sulphite (by reaction with dilute acids besides then aqueous potassium manganate(VII))

gases:

ammonia (using damp red litmus paper), carbon dioxide (using limewater), chlorine (using damp litmus paper), hydrogen (using lighted splint), oxygen (by means of a glowing splint), and sulfur dioxide (using aqueous potassium manganate(VII))

9 The Periodic Table

9.1 The Periodic Table

  • Describe the Periodic Table as a way of categorizing fundamentals and its use to predict properties of elements

9.2 Periodic trends

  • Tag the change from metallic to non-metallic character diagonally a period

9.3 Group properties

  • Describe lithium, sodium and potassium in Group I as a collection of relatively lenient metals showing a trend in melting point, thickness and reaction with water
  • Foresee the properties of other elements in Group I, given data, where appropriate
  • Describe the halogens, chlorine, bromine and iodine in Group VII, as a group of diatomic non-metals viewing a trend in colour and density and state their reaction with extra halide ions
  • Guess the properties of other elements in Group VII, given statistics where suitable

9.4 Transition elements
• Describe the transition elements as a collection of metals having high densities, high melting points and creating coloured compounds, and which, as elements and compounds, frequently turn as catalytic agent

9.5 Noble gases

  • Describe the noble gases, in Group VIII or 0, as being unreactive, monoatomic gases also describe this in terms of electronic structure
  • State the uses of the noble gases in providing an inert atmosphere, i.e. argon in lamps, helium for filling hot-air balloon

10 Metals

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10.1 Properties of metals

  • List the overall physical properties of metals
  • Define the general chemical properties of metals, e.g. reaction with dilute acids and reaction with oxygen
  • Explicate in terms of their properties why alloys are used in its place of pure metals
  • Identify pictures of alloys from diagrams of structure

10.2 Reactivity series

  • Place in order of reactivity: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, (hydrogen) and copper, by situation to the responses, if any, of the metals with:

–– water or steam

–– dilute hydrochloric acid and the reduction of their oxides with carbon

  • Assume an order of reactivity from a agreed set of experimental outcomes

10.3 Removal of metals

  • Identify the ease in finding metals from their minerals by relating the basics to the reactivity series
  • Explain and state the critical reactions in the taking out of iron from hematite
  • Assess the change of iron into steel using basic oxides and oxygen
  • Tell that aluminium is extracted from the ore bauxite by electrolysis
  • Discuss the rewards and drawbacks of recycling metals, restricted to iron/steel and aluminium

10.4 Uses of metals

  • Designate the uses of aluminium:

–– in the building of aircraft because of its strength and low density

–– in diet containers because of its resistance to corrosion

  • Name the uses of copper related to its properties (electrical cabling and in culinary utensils)
  • Critically analyse the uses of mild steel (car bodies and machinery) and stainless steel (chemical plant and cutlery)

11 Air, water, gases and liquid

11.1 Water

  • Critically evaluate chemical tests for water using cobalt(II) chloride and copper(II) sulfate
  • Assess the dealing of the water supply in terms of purification and chlorination
  • Name some of the uses of water in industry and in the home

11.2 Air

  • State the composition of fresh, dry air as being approximately 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and the remainder as being a mixture of noble gases and carbon dioxide
  • Term the mutual pollutants in the air as being carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and lead compounds
  • Identify the cause of each of these pollutants:

–– carbon monoxide from the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing substances

–– sulfur dioxide from the combustion of fossil energies which comprise sulfur compounds (leading to ‘acid rain’)

–– oxides of nitrogen from car engines

–– lead compounds from leaded petrol

  • State the adversative effect of these shared pollutants on structures and on health and discuss why these pollutants are of international concern
  • State the conditions required for the rusting of iron
  • Describe and explain systems of rust prevention, specifically paint and other coverings to dismiss oxygen

11.3 Nitrogen and fertilisers

  • Explain the need for nitrogen-, phosphorus- and potassium-containing fertilisers
  • Describe the dislocation of ammonia away from its salts

11.4 Carbon dioxide and methane

  • State that carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases and explain in what way they may contribute to environmental change
  • State the formation of carbon dioxide:

– as a product of complete combustion of carbon-containing substances

– as a product of inhalation

– as a product of the reaction between an acid and a carbonate

– from the thermal decomposition of a carbonate

  • Assess the bases of methane, with decomposition of vegetation and waste gases from digestion in animals

12 Sulfur

12.1 Sulfur

  • Identify certain sources of sulfur
  • State the use of sulfur in the making of sulfuric acid
  • Evaluate the uses of sulfur dioxide as a whitening in the manufacture of wood pulp for paper and as a food preservative (by killing bacteria)

13 Carbonates

13.1 Carbonates

  • Define the gathering of lime (calcium oxide) from calcium carbonate (limestone) in terms of thermal decomposition
  • Outline some benefits of lime and slaked lime such as in giving acidic soil and neutralising acidic industrial waste products, e.g. flue gas desulfurisation
  • Express the usages of calcium carbonate in the production of iron and cement

14 Organic chemistry

14.1 Names of compounds

  • Outline and illustrate the structures of methane, ethane, ethene, ethanol, ethanoic acid and the products of the feedbacks stated in sections 14.4–14.6
  • State the type of compound present, given a chemical name finishing with ‑ane, ‑ene, ‑ol, or ‑oic acid or a molecular structure

14.2 Fuels

  • Identify and explain the fuels: coal, natural gas and petroleum
  • Naming methane as the main constituent of natural gas
  • Explain petroleum as a mixture of hydrocarbons and its separation into useful fractions by fractional distillation
  • Describe the properties of molecules within a fraction
  • Name the pro of the fractions as:

– refinery gas for bottled gas for heating system and cookery

– gasoline fraction for fuel (petrol) in cars

– naphtha fraction for making chemicals

– kerosene/paraffin fraction for jet fuel

– diesel oil/gas oil for fuel in diesel engines

– fuel oil fraction for fuel for crafts and home heating systems

– lubricating fraction for lubricants, waxes and polishes

– bitumen for construction of roads

14.3 Homologous series

  • Explain some notion of homologous series as a ‘family’ of similar compounds with similar chemical properties due to the existence of the same functional group

14.4 Alkanes

  • Describe the properties of alkanes (exemplified by methane) as being generally unreactive, except in terms of burning
  • Describe the attachment in alkanes

14.5 Alkenes

  • Describe the manufacture of alkenes and of hydrogen by cracking
  • Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons:

–– from molecular structures

–– by reaction with aqueous bromine

  • Describe the establishment of poly(ethene) as an example of totalling the polymerisation of monomer units

14.6 Alcohols

  • Describe the meaning of manufacturing of ethanol by fermentation and by the catalytic count of steam to ethene
  • Assess the properties of ethanol in areas of burning
  • List the uses of ethanol as a solvent and as a fuel

14.7 Carboxylic acids

  • Describe the properties of aqueous ethanoic acid

14.8 Polymers

14.8.1 Polymers

  • Define polymers as huge molecules built up from minor units (monomers)

14.8.2 Synthetic polymers

  • Name some typical uses of plastics and of man-made fibres such as nylon and Terylene
  • Describe the contamination problems caused by non-biodegradable plastics

14.8.3 Natural polymers

  • Name proteins and carbohydrates as constituents of food
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Candidates should assume to do the following if they are doing SUPPLEMENT IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers:

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1 The particulate nature of matter

1.1 The particulate nature of matter

  • Outline the variations of state in terms of the kinetic philosophy
  • Describe and assess Brownian motion in areas of arbitrary molecular bombardment
  • Identify indication for Brownian motion
  • Describe and explain dependence of rate of diffusion on molecular form as explained clearly in IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers syllabus.

2 Experimental techniques

2.1 Measurement

2.2 Purity

2.2.1 Criteria of purity

  • Interpret simple chromatograms, including the use of Rf values
  • Outline, as described in the IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers, on how chromatography techniques can be useful to colourless substances by exposing chromatograms to substances called locating agents. (Knowledge of specific locating agents is not required.)

3 Atoms, elements and compounds

3.1 Atomic structure and the Periodic Table

  • In IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers, students are needed to appreciate that isotopes have the same properties since they have the equivalent quantity of electrons in their outer shell

3.2 Structure and bonding

3.2.1 Bonding: the structure of matter

  • Explain the development of ionic bonds among metallic and non-metallic elements
  • Describe the lattice structure of ionic compounds as a systematic preparation of alternating positive and negative ions

3.2.3 Molecules and covalent bonds
• Describe the electron arrangement in more complex covalent molecules such as N2, C2H4, CH3OH and CO2
• Evaluate the transformations in melting point and boiling point of ionic and covalent compounds in terms of attractive forces

3.2.4 Macromolecules
• Describe the macromolecular structure of silicon(IV) oxide (silicon dioxide)

  • Relate the resemblance in properties between diamond and silicon(IV) oxide, related to their structures

3.2.5 Metallic bonding

  • Express the metallic bonding as a lattice of positive ions in a ‘sea of electrons’ and use this to explain the electrical conductivity and malleability of metals

4 Stoichiometry

4.1 Stoichiometry

  • Planning the plan of an ionic compound from the charges on the ions present
  • Construct equations with state symbols, including ionic equations
  • Concluding a balanced equation for a chemical reaction, given relevant information

4.2 The mole concept

  • Define the mole and the Avogadro constant
  • Use the molar gas capacity, taken as 24 dm3 at room temperature and pressure
  • Calculate stoichiometric reacting masses, volumes of gases and solutions, and concentrations of solutions expressed in g / dm3 and mol / dm3. (Computation involving the knowledge of restrictive reactants may be set. Questions on the gas laws and the conversion of gaseous volumes to diverse temperatures and pressures will not be set.)
  • Calculate empirical formulations and molecular methods
  • Calculate percentage yield and percentage purity

5 Electricity and chemistry

5.1 Electricity and chemistry

  • In IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers, you are supposed to relate the products of electrolysis to the electrolyte and electrodes used, exemplified by the specific examples in the Core together with aqueous copper(II) sulfate using carbon electrodes and using copper electrodes (as used in the refining of copper)
  • Discuss electrolysis in terms of the ions existing and responses at the electrodes in the examples given
  • Explain the products of electrolysis of a specified halide in dilute or concentrated aqueous solution
  • Draw an ionic half-equation for reactions at the cathode
  • Also, in IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers, to criticise the allocation of charge during electrolysis to include:

–– the measure of electrons in the metallic conductor

–– the subtraction or addition of electrons from the outside circuit at the electrodes

–– the movement of ions in the electrolyte

  • Discuss the making of electrical energy from simple cells, i.e. two electrodes in an electrolyte. (This should be related with the reactivity series in section 10.2 and redox in section 7.4.)
  • Explain, in outline, the manufacture of:

–– aluminium from pure aluminium oxide in molten cryolite (refer to section 10.3)

–– chlorine, hydrogen and sodium hydroxide from concentrated aqueous sodium chloride (Initial materials and essential conditions should be given but not practical details or figures.)

6 Chemical energetics

6.1 Energetics of a reaction

  • Comment on bond breaking as an endothermic process and bond forming as an exothermic process
  • Illustrate and explain energy level diagrams for exothermic and endothermic reactions using data provided will be examined in these IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers
  • Calculate and describe the energy of a reaction using bond energies

6.2 Energy transfer

  • Describe the usage of hydrogen as a fuel reacting with oxygen to create electricity in a fuel cell. (Details of the building and operation of a fuel cell are not required.)

7 Chemical reactions

7.2 Rate (speed) of reaction

  • Criticise and evaluate an appropriate method for exploring the effect of a given adjustable on the rate of a reaction. This are needed for IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers.
  • Outline and express the effects of temperature and concentration in terms of collisions amongst reacting particles. (An increase in temperature causes a growth in collision rate and more of the colliding molecules have sufficient energy (activation energy) to react whereas an increase in concentration only makes an increase in collision rate.)
  • Discuss and explain the role of light in photochemical reactions and the effect of light on the rate of these reactions. (This should be linked to section 14.4. for IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers)
  • Evaluate and assess the use of silver salts in photography as a procedure of lessening of silver ions to silver; and photosynthesis as the response between carbon dioxide and water in the existence of chlorophyll and sunlight (energy) to yield glucose and oxygen

7.3 Reversible reactions

  • Predict the effect of changing the conditions (concentration, temperature and pressure) on other reversible reactions
  • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the concept of equilibrium. This is extremely important for this IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers.
  • Define redox in terms of electron transfer
  • Identify redox reactions by changes in oxidation state and by the colour changes involved when using acidified potassium manganate(VII), and potassium iodide. (Recall of equations involving KMnO4 is not required.)
  • Term oxidising agent as a substance which oxidises another substance during a redox reaction. Define reducing agent as a substance which reduces another substance during a redox reaction.
  • Stating for oxidising agents and reducing agents from simple comparations. Especially important in IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers
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8 Acids, bases and salts

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8.1 The characteristic properties of acids and bases

  • Define and describe acids and bases in terms of proton transfer, limited to aqueous solutions
  • Describe and evaluate the meaning of weak and strong acids and bases

8.2 Types of oxides

  • Further categorize other oxides as unbiassed or Amphoteric

8.3 Preparation of salts

  • Establish knowledge and understanding of the preparation of insoluble salts by precipitation
  • Propose a technique of construction a given salt from a suitable starting material, given proper data

9 The Periodic Table

9.1 The Periodic Table

9.2 Periodic trends

  • Outline and explain the connection between Group number, number of outer shell electrons and metallic/non-metallic character

9.3 Group properties

  • Suggest trends in Groups, given data about the elements concerned as outlined in IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers syllabus.

9.4 Transition elements

  • Recognize that transition elements have variable oxidation states

10 Metals

10.1 Properties of metals

10.2 Reactivity series

  • Evaluate and explain the reactivity series as related to the tendency of a metal to form its positive ion, demonstrated by its reaction, if any, with:

–– the aqueous ions

–– the oxides of the other listed metals

  • Identify and explain the action of heat on the hydroxides, carbonates and nitrates of the listed metals
  • For this IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers, you have to take into consideration for the apparent underactivity of aluminium in terms of the oxide coat which adheres to the metal

10.3 Extraction of metals

  • Discuss in summary, the extraction of zinc from the beginning of zinc blende
  • Explain in framework, the extraction of aluminium after bauxite including the role of cryolite and the reactions at the electrodes while you are studying for IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers

10.4 Uses of metals

  • Explain the uses of zinc for galvanising and for making brass
  • State the knowledge of changing the properties of iron by the controlled use of extracts to form steel alloys simply for IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers

11 Air and water

11.1 Water

  • Debate the implications of an insufficient supply of water, inadequate to safe water for consumption and water for irrigating crops

11.2 Air

  • Discuss the separation of oxygen and nitrogen from liquid air by fractional distillation when you are doing IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers
    • List and explain the presence of oxides of nitrogen in car machines and their catalytic removal will be tested in IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers
  • Assess and explain sacrificial protection in terms of the reactivity series of metals and galvanising as a method of rust prevention

11.3 Nitrogen and fertilisers

  • Describe and explain the vital settings for the manufacture of ammonia by the Haber process including the sources of the hydrogen and nitrogen, i.e. hydrocarbons or vapor and air

11.4 Carbon dioxide and methane

  • Describe the carbon cycle, in simple terms, to include the methods of combustion, respiration and photosynthesis

12 Sulfur

12.1 Sulfur

  • Compare the creation of sulfuric acid by the Contact process, including essential conditions with reactions
  • Express the properties and benefits of dilute and concentrated sulfuric acid

13 Carbonates

13.1 Carbonates

14 Organic chemistry

14.1 Names of compounds

  • Draw and explain the structures of the unbranched alkanes, alkenes (not cis-trans), alcohols besides acids comprising up to four carbon atoms per molecule in IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers
  • Discuss and draw the structural recipes of the esters which can be made from unbranched alcohols and carboxylic acids, each containing up to four carbon atoms

14.2 Fuels

14.3 Homologous series

  • Describe the wide-ranging characteristics of a homologous series
  • Recall that the compounds in a homologous series have the same general formula
  • Describe and identify structural isomerism

14.4 Alkanes

  • Describe replacement reactions of alkanes against chlorine

14.5 Alkenes

  • Describe the properties of alkenes in terms of addition reactions with bromine, hydrogen and steam for IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers

14.6 Alcohols

  • Outline the pros and cons of these two alternatives of engineering ethanol

14.7 Carboxylic acids

  • State and describe the establishment of ethanoic acid by the oxidation of ethanol by fermentation and through acidified potassium manganate(VII)
  • Describe and explain ethanoic acid as a typical weak acid
  • Assess and evaluate the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst to give an ester

14.8 Polymers

14.8.1 Polymers

14.8.2 Synthetic polymers

  • Outline and state the differences between condensation and addition polymerisation
  • Express the structure of the polymer product from a given alkene and vice versa
  • Describe the formation of nylon (a polyamide) and Terylene (a polyester) by concentration polymerisation, the structure of nylon being represented as.

 14.8.2 Synthetic polymers

  • Explain the changes between condensation and addition polymerisation
  • Deduce the assembly of the polymer product from a given alkene and vice versa
  • Describe the construction of nylon (a polyamide) and Terylene (a polyester) by condensation polymerisation, the structure of nylon being signified as.

 14.8.3 Natural polymers

  • Describe proteins as possessing the same (amide) linkages as nylon but with diverse units will be tested for IGCSE Chemistry Past Year Papers
    • Describe the hydrolysis of proteins to amino acids. (Structures and names are not required.)
    • Evaluate the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates (e.g. starch), by acids or enzymes to give simple sugars
    • Assess the fermentation of simple sugars to produce ethanol (and carbon dioxide). (Candidates will not be expected to give the molecular formulae of sugars.)
    • Discuss, in outline, the usefulness of chromatography in separating and identifying the products of hydrolysis of carbohydrates and proteins
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