IGCSE Biology Papers

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List of (0610) IGCSE Biology Past Year Papers Downloads

List of (0610) IGCSE Biology Past Year Papers Downloads

Other IGCSE Past Exam Paper Downloads

Objectives To Achieve When Doing These IGCSE Biology Past Year Papers

igcse biology past year papers 0610

The objectives describe the purposes of doing these papers. Candidates can deliver some of the objectives using suitable domestic, global or historical examples and applications, or over collective experimental work. The objectives are to:

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• Give an entertaining and meaningful learning experience for all learners, whether or not they go on to study science beyond this level
• Support candidates and learners to gain sufficient knowledge and understanding to: Becoming a confident person in a technical and dynamic world and develop an informed interest in scientific matters and be well-prepared for studies beyond Cambridge IGCSE
• Enable candidates and learners to recognise that science is evidence based and understand the usefulness, and the restrictions, of scientific method
• Develop skills that: Are important to the study and practice of biology, beneficial in everyday life, encourages an organized approach to problem solving, efficient and safe practice and effective communication through the language of science
• Improve attitudes relevant to biology such as: Concern for accuracy and precision, objectivity, integrity, enquiry, initiative, inventiveness
• Allow candidates and learners to understand that: Science is subject to economic, social, technological, ethical and cultural influences and limitations. The uses of science may be both beneficial and harmful to the individual, businesses, the community and the environment.

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The 21 Fundamental Sections For These (0610) IGCSE Biology Past Year Papers

Candidates will be exposed to such topics:

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#1 Characteristics and classification of living organisms
#2 Organisation of the organism
#3 Movement in and out of cells
#4 Biological molecules
#5 Enzymes
#6 Plant nutrition
#7 Human nutrition
#8 Transport in plants
#9 Transport in animals
#10 Diseases and immunity
#11 Gas exchange in humans
#12 Respiration
#13 Excretion in humans
#14 Coordination and response
#15 Drugs
#16 Reproduction
#17 Inheritance
#18 Variation and selection
#19 Organisms and their environment
#20 Biotechnology and genetic engineering
#21 Human influences on ecosystems

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Subject Contents for the 21 Sections Discussed Above

IMPORTANT: Core subject content should be taught for all candidates or learners. Grade C can only be achieved at the maximum for candidates who are only taking the Core papers. Candidates aiming for grades A* to C should be educated the Extended subject content. The Extended subject content covers both the Core and the Supplement. Scientific subjects are, by their nature, experimental. Learners should pursue a fully unified course which enables them to build their practical skills by carrying out practical work and investigations within all of the topics listed when doing these IGCSE Biology past year papers.

Candidates should expected to do the following:

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1 Characteristics and classification of living organisms

Characteristics of living organisms

Core

  • Describe the features of living organisms by defining the terms:
    – movement as an action by an organism causing an adjustment of position or place
    – breathing as the chemical reactions in cells that break down nutrient molecules and discharge energy
    –  sensitivity as the ability to detect and respond to changes in the environment 
    –  growth as a permanent increase in size
    –  reproduction as the processes that make more of the same kind of organism –  excretion as removal from organisms of toxic materials and substances in excess of requirements
    –  nutrition as taking in of materials for energy, growth and development

Supplement

Express the terms:
– movement as an action by an organism or part of an organism causing a change of position or place
– respiration as the chemical reactions in cells that break down nutrient molecules and release energy for metabolism
–  excretion as removal from organisms of the waste products of metabolism (chemical reactions in cells comprising respiration), toxic materials, and substances in excess of requirements
–  nutrition as taking in of materials for energy, growth and development; plants require light, carbon dioxide, water and ions; animals need organic compounds and ions and usually need water when attempting these IGCSE Biology past year papers
–  sensitivity as the ability to identify or sense stimuli in the internal or external environment and to make appropriate responses
–  growth as a perpetual increase in size and dry mass by a surge in cell number or cell size or both

Concept and use of a classification system

Core
• State that organisms can be categorised into groups by the characteristics they share
• Define species as a group of organisms that can reproduce to produce fertile offspring will be examined in these IGCSE Biology past year papers
• Define and describe the binomial system of naming species as an internationally agreed system in which the scientific name of an organism is made up of two parts showing the genus and species

Supplement
• Explain that grouping systems aim to reflect evolutionary relationships
• Explain that grouping is traditionally based on studies of morphology and anatomy
• Explain that the orders of bases in DNA and of amino acids in proteins are used as a more accurate means of classification
• Explain that organisms which segment a more recent ancestor (are more closely related) have base orders in DNA that are more comparable than those that share only a distant ancestor

Features of organisms

Core
• For these IGCSE Biology past year papers, you are required to list the features in the cells of all living organisms, limited to cytoplasm, cell membrane and DNA as genetic material 
• List the main characteristics used to place animals and plants into the appropriate kingdoms 
• List the main characteristics used to place organisms into groups within the animal kingdom, limited to:  – the key groups of vertebrates: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish – the key groups of arthropods: myriapods, insects, arachnids, crustaceans

Supplement
• Outline the characteristics in the cells of all living organisms, limited to ribosomes for protein synthesis plus enzymes involved in respiration
• Outlining the main characteristics in this IGCSE Biology past year papers are used to place all organisms into one of the five kingdoms: Animal, Fungues., Plant, Prokaryote, Protoctist
• Outline the main characteristics used to place organisms into groups within the plant kingdom, limited to ferns and flowering plants (dicotyledons and monocotyledons)
• Outline the characteristics of viruses, limited to protein coat and genetic material

Dichotomous keys
Core
Build and use simple dichotomous means based on easily recognisable features

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Why Should You Study and Practice These IGCSE Biology Past Year Papers?

IMPORTANT: Core subject content should be taught for all candidates or learners. Grade C can only be achieved at the maximum for candidates who are only taking the Core papers. Candidates aiming for grades A* to C should be educated the Extended subject content. The Extended subject content covers both the Core and the Supplement. Scientific subjects are, by their nature, experimental. Learners should pursue a fully unified course which enables them to build their practical skills by carrying out practical work and investigations within all of the topics listed when doing these 0610 IGCSE Biology past year papers.

Candidates should expected to do the following:

1 Characteristics and classification of living organisms

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1.1 Characteristics of living organisms

Core

  • Describe the features of living organisms by defining the terms:
    – movement as an action by an organism causing an adjustment of position or place
    – breathing as the chemical reactions in cells that break down nutrient molecules and discharge energy
    –  sensitivity as the ability to detect and respond to changes in the environment 
    –  growth as a permanent increase in size
    –  reproduction as the processes that make more of the same kind of organism –  excretion as removal from organisms of toxic materials and substances in excess of requirements
    –  nutrition as taking in of materials for energy, growth and development

Supplement

  • Express the terms:
    – movement as an action by an organism or part of an organism causing a change of position or place
    – respiration as the chemical reactions in cells that break down nutrient molecules and release energy for metabolism
    –  excretion as removal from organisms of the waste products of metabolism (chemical reactions in cells comprising respiration), toxic materials, and substances in excess of requirements
    –  nutrition as taking in of materials for energy, growth and development; plants require light, carbon dioxide, water and ions; animals need organic compounds and ions and usually need water when attempting these 0610 IGCSE Biology past year papers
    –  sensitivity as the ability to identify or sense stimuli in the internal or external environment and to make appropriate responses
    –  growth as a perpetual increase in size and dry mass by a surge in cell number or cell size or both

1.2 Concept and use of a classification system

Core
• State that organisms can be categorised into groups by the characteristics they share
• Define species as a group of organisms that can reproduce to produce fertile offspring will be examined in these IGCSE Biology past year papers
• Define and describe the binomial system of naming species as an internationally agreed system in which the scientific name of an organism is made up of two parts showing the genus and species

Supplement
• Explain that grouping systems aim to reflect evolutionary relationships
• Explain that grouping is traditionally based on studies of morphology and anatomy
• Explain that the orders of bases in DNA and of amino acids in proteins are used as a more accurate means of classification
• Explain that organisms which segment a more recent ancestor (are more closely related) have base orders in DNA that are more comparable than those that share only a distant ancestor

1.4 Features of organisms

Core
• For these IGCSE Biology past year papers, you are required to list the features in the cells of all living organisms, limited to cytoplasm, cell membrane and DNA as genetic material 
• List the main characteristics used to place animals and plants into the appropriate kingdoms 
• List the main characteristics used to place organisms into groups within the animal kingdom, limited to:  – the key groups of vertebrates: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish – the key groups of arthropods: myriapods, insects, arachnids, crustaceans

Supplement
• Outline the characteristics in the cells of all living organisms, limited to ribosomes for protein synthesis plus enzymes involved in respiration
• Outlining the main characteristics in this IGCSE Biology past year papers are used to place all organisms into one of the five kingdoms: Animal, Fungues., Plant, Prokaryote, Protoctist
• Outline the main characteristics used to place organisms into groups within the plant kingdom, limited to ferns and flowering plants (dicotyledons and monocotyledons)
• Outline the characteristics of viruses, limited to protein coat and genetic material

1.4 Dichotomous keys

  • Core
    Build and use simple dichotomous means based on easily recognisable features

2 Organisation of the organism
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2.1 Cell structure and organisation
Core

• Label and compare the format of a plant cell with an animal cell, as seen under a light microscope, limited to cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, vacuoles and location of the cell membrane will be tested in these IGCSE Biology past year papers
• List the purposes of the format seen under the bright microscope in the plant cell and in the animal cell

Supplement
• List, limited to ribosomes on rough endoplasmic reticulum and vesicles, that the cytoplasm of all cells contains structures
• List that almost all cells, except prokaryotes, have mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum 
• Identify mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum in diagrams and images of cells
• Outline that aerobic respiration happens in mitochondria
• Outline that cells with high rates of metabolism involve large numbers of mitochondria to provide sufficient energy

2.2 Levels of organisation
Core
• Communicate the format of the following to their functions: ciliated cells, movement of mucus in the trachea and bronchi, root hair cells, absorption, xylem vessels, conduction and support, palisade mesophyll cells, photosynthesis, nerve cells, conduction of impulses, red blood cells, transport of oxygen, sperm and egg cells, reproduction
• Describe tissue as a collection of cells with similar structures, working together to perform a shared function
• Describe organ as a structure made up of a group of tissues, working together to perform specific functions will be examined when doing these IGCSE Biology past year papers
• Explain organ system as a group of organs with related functions, working together to perform body functions 
• Outline examples of tissues, organs and organ systems from sections 6 to 16
• Recognise the different levels of organisation in drawings, diagrams and images of familiar material

Supplement
• Recognise the different levels of organisation in drawings, diagrams and images of unfamiliar material

2.3 Size of specimens
Core

• Compute magnification and size of biological specimens by millimetres as units

Supplement
• Compute magnification and size of biological specimens by millimetres and micrometres as units

3 Movement in and out of cells
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3.1 Diffusion

Core
• In these IGCSE Biology past year papers, define diffusion as the net movement of particles from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration down a concentration gradient, as a result of their random movement
• Explain the significance of diffusion of gases and solutes
• State that substances move into and out of cells by diffusion through the cell membrane

Supplement
• State that the drive for diffusion comes from the kinetic energy of unsystematic movement of molecules and ions
• Examine the reasons that influence diffusion, limited to surface area, temperature, concentration gradients and distance

3.2 Osmosis
Core
• Identify that water diffuses through partially permeable membranes by osmosis
• Identify that water moves in and out of cells by osmosis through the cell crust
• Study and describe the effects on plant tissues of immersing them in solutions of different concentrations
• Identifying that plants are supported by the pressure of water inside the cells pressing outwards on the cell wall is tested when trying these IGCSE Biology past year papers

Supplement
• Define osmosis as the net movement of water molecules from a area of higher water potential (dilute solution) to a region of lower water potential (concentrated solution), through a partially penetrable membrane
• Clarify the special effects on plant tissues of submersing them in solutions of different concentrations by using the terms turgid, turgor pressure, plasmolysis and flaccid
• Clarify the significance of water potential and osmosis in the uptake of water by plants
• Explain the importance of water potential and osmosis on animal cells and tissues
• Explain how plants are supported by the turgor pressure within cells, in terms of water pressure acting against an inelastic cell wall

3.3 Active transport
Core
• Define active transport as the movement of particles through a cell membrane from a region of lesser concentration to a area of higher awareness using energy from respiration are required in these IGCSE Biology past year papers

Supplement
• Argue the importance of active transport as a process for movement across membranes: e.g. ion uptake by root hairs and uptake of glucose by epithelial cells of villi and kidney tubules
• Explain in what way protein molecules change particles across a membrane throughout active transport

4 Biological molecules
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4.1 Biological molecules

Core
• Outline the chemical elements that make up: carbohydrates, fats, proteins
• State that big molecules are made from smaller molecules, limited to: starch and glycogen from glucose, cellulose from glucose, proteins from amino acids, fats and oils from fatty acids and glycerol 
• Explain the purpose of: iodine solution to test for starch, Benedict’s solution to test for reducing sugars, biuret test for proteins, ethanol emulsion test for fats and oils, DCPIP test for vitamin C
• In these IGCSE Biology past year papers, explaining that water is vital as a solvent will also be examined

Supplement
• Explain that different sequences of amino acids give different shapes to protein molecules
• Relate the shape and structure of protein molecules to their function, limited to the active site of enzymes and the binding site of antibodies
• Describe the structure of DNA as: –  two strands coiled together to form a double helix –  each strand contains chemicals called bases –  cross-links between the strands are formed by pairs of bases –  the bases always pair up in the same way: A with T, and C with G (full names are not required)
• Describe the roles of water as a solvent in organisms with respect to digestion, excretion and transport

5 Enzymes
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5.1 Enzymes

Core
• State the term catalyst as a element that increases the rate of a biological reaction and is not changed by the reaction
• Describe enzymes as proteins that function as biological catalysts
• Define why enzymes are important in all living organisms in terms of reaction speed necessary to sustain life
• Define enzyme action with reference to the complementary shape of an enzyme and its substrate and the construction of a product (information of the term active site is not required)
• Consider and describe the effect of changes in temperature and pH on enzyme activity

Supplement
• Describe enzyme action with situation to the active site, enzyme-substrate complex, substrate and product
• Describe the specificity of enzymes in terms of the complementary shape and fit of the active site with the substrate
• Giving details of the effect of changes in temperature on enzyme activity when attempting these IGCSE Biology past year papers in terms of kinetic energy, shape and fit, frequency of effective collisions and denaturation
• Give details the effect of changes in pH on enzyme activity in terms of shape and fit and denaturation

6 Plant nutrition
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6.1 Photosynthesis

Core
• Outline photosynthesis as the development by which plants manufacture carbohydrates from raw materials by energy from light
• List the word equation for photosynthesis: carbon dioxide + water → glucose + oxygen, with the existence of light and chlorophyll
• Evaluate the necessity for chlorophyll, light and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, using appropriate controls
• Evaluate and describe the effects of varying light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and temperature on the rate of photosynthesis, e.g. in submerged aquatic plants

Supplement
• Describe the balanced chemical equation for photosynthesis

 6CO2 + 6H2O > light chlorophyll > C6H12O6 + 6O2

  • Describe that chlorophyll transfers light energy into chemical energy in molecules, for the synthesis of carbohydrates
    • Outline the subsequent use and storage of the carbohydrates made in photosynthesis
    • Outline the term limiting factor as something exist in the environment in such short supply that it restricts life processes
    • Identify and explain the limiting factors of photosynthesis in different ecological environments will also be tested in these IGCSE Biology past year papers
    • Describe the use of carbon dioxide enrichment, optimum light and optimum temperatures in glasshouses in temperate and tropical countries
    • Use hydrogencarbonate indicator answer to investigate the effect of gas exchange of an aquatic plant kept in the light and in the dark

6.2 Leaf structure
Core

• Categorize and recognise chloroplasts, cuticle, guard cells and stomata, upper and lower epidermis, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, vascular bundles, xylem and phloem in leaves of a dicotyledonous plant

Supplement
• Clarify why and how the inner structure of a leaf is changed for photosynthesis

6.3 Mineral requirements
Core
• Describe the meaning of: nitrate ions for making amino acids, magnesium ions for making chlorophyll

Supplement
• Explain the effects of nitrate ion and magnesium ion deficiency on plant growth

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7 Human nutrition
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7.1 Diet
Core
• Explain what is intended by the term balanced diet for humans  |
• Explain how age, gender and activity affect the dietary necessities of humans including during pregnancy and whilst breast-feeding
• Explain the effects of undernourishment in relation to starvation, constipation, coronary heart disease, obesity and scurvy
• Explain the main sources of, and define the dietary importance of: Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, limited to C and D, mineral salts, limited to calcium and iron, fibre (roughage), water

Supplement
• Explain the reasons and effects of vitamin D and iron deficiencies
• Explain the reasons and effects of protein-energy malnutrition, e.g. kwashiorkor and marasmus (included for these IGCSE Biology past year papers)

 

7.2 Alimentary canal
Core

• Describe ingestion as the attraction of substances, e.g. food and drink, into the body through the mouth
• Describe automatic digestion as the breakdown of food into smaller pieces without chemical change to the food molecules
• Describe biological digestion as the breakdown of large, insoluble molecules into small, soluble molecules 
• Explain absorption as the movement of small food molecules and ions through the wall of the intestine into the blood
• Explain assimilation as the movement of processed food molecules into the cells of the body where they are used, becoming part of the cells
• Explain egestion as the passing out of food that has not been processed or absorbed, as faeces, through the anus
• Define diarrhoea as the loss of watery faeces
• State the treatment of diarrhoea using oral rehydration therapy
• Explain cholera as a disease caused by a bacterium when doing IGCSE Biology past year papers
• Recognise the key regions of the alimentary canal and associated organs, limited to mouth, salivary glands, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum and ileum), pancreas, liver, gall bladder and large intestine (colon, rectum, anus)
• Describe the functions of the regions of the alimentary canal listed above, in relation to ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion of food

Supplement
• When doing these IGCSE Biology past year papers, explain that the cholera bacterium produces a toxin that causes secretion of chloride ions into the small intestine, causing osmotic movement of water into the gut, producing diarrhoea, thirst and loss of salts from blood

7.3 Mechanical digestion
Core

• Recognise the categories of human teeth (incisors, canines, premolars and molars) 
• Explain the format of human teeth, limited to enamel, dentine, pulp, nerves and cement, as well as the gums
• Define the functions of the types of human teeth in mechanical digestion of food
• Outline the causes of dental decay in terms of a coating of bacteria and food on teeth, the bacteria respiring sugars in the food, producing acid which dissolves the enamel and dentine
• Explaining the proper care of teeth in terms of diet and regular brushing will be examined in these IGCSE Biology past year papers

7.4 Chemical digestion
Core

• Explain the importance when doing these 0610 IGCSE Biology past year papers of chemical digestion in the alimentary canal in producing small, soluble molecules that can be absorbed
• Explain the tasks of enzymes as follows: amylase breaks down starch to simpler sugars, protease breaks down protein to amino acids, lipase breaks down fats to fatty acids and glycerol
• Explain where, in the alimentary canal, amylase, protease and lipase are secrete
• Explain the purposes of the hydrochloric acid in gastric juice, limited to killing bacteria in food and giving an acid pH for enzymes

Supplement
• Explain the digestion of starch in the alimentary canal: amylase is concealed into the alimentary canal and breaks down starch to maltose, maltose is broken down by maltase to glucose on the membranes of the epithelium lining the small intestine when doing these 0610 IGCSE Biology past year papers
• Explain pepsin and trypsin as two protease enzymes that function in different parts of the alimentary canal: pepsin in the stomach, trypsin in the small intestine
• Explain the meanings of the hydrochloric acid in gastric juice, limited to the low pH: denaturing enzymes in harmful microorganisms in food, giving the optimum pH for pepsin activity
• Outline the role of bile in neutralising the acidic mixture of food and gastric juices entering the duodenum from the stomach, to provide a appropriate pH for enzyme action
• Outline the part of bile in emulsifying fats to increase the surface area for the chemical digestion of fat to fatty acids and glycerol by lipase 

 

7.5 Absorption
Core
• Identify the minor intestine as the region for the absorption of digested food
 • State that water is engrossed in both the small intestine and the colon, but that most absorption of water happens in the small intestine

Supplement
• Evaluate the importance of villi and microvilli in growing the centre surface area of the small intestine
• Label the structure of a villus
• Label the roles of capillaries and lacteals in villi

8 Transport in plants
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8.1 Transport in plants
Core
• Outline the functions of xylem and phloem
• Identify the location and situation of xylem and phloem as seen in sections of roots, stems and leaves, limited to non-woody dicotyledonous plants

8.2 Water uptake
Core
• Categorise root hair cells, as seen below the light microscope, and state their functions
• State the way taken by water through root, stem and leaf as root hair cell, root cortex cells, xylem and mesophyll cells
• Explore, using a suitable stain, the way of water over the above-ground parts of a plant

Supplement
• Discussing that the big surface zone of root hairs increases the absorption rate of water by osmosis and ions by active transport when attempting these 0610 IGCSE Biology past year papers

 

8.3 Transpiration
Core
• Describe that water is conveyed from the roots to leaves over the xylem vessels
• Explain transpiration as loss of water vapour from plant leaves by evaporation of water at the surfaces of the mesophyll cells followed by diffusion of water steam over the stomata when attempting this 0610 IGCSE Biology past year papers 
• Evaluate and explain the effects of variation of temperature and humidity on transpiration rate

Supplement
• Explain how water vapour loss is related to the big surface area of cell surfaces, interrelating air spaces and stomata
• Explain the mechanism by which water moves upwards in the xylem in terms of a transpiration pull that lures up a column of water molecules, held together by cohesion
• Explain why and how wilting happens
• Explain the effects of dissimilarity of temperature and humidity on transpiration rate

8.4 Translocation
Supplement

• Outline translocation in terms of the movement of sucrose and amino acids in phloem: from regions of production (source), to areas of storage OR to areas where they are used in respiration or growth (sink)
• Clarify that some parts of a plant may act as a foundation and a sink at diverse times during the life of a plant

9 Transport in animals
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9.1 Transport in animals

Core
• Explain the circulatory structure as a system of blood vessels with a pump and valves to ensure one-way flow of blood

Supplement
• Explain the single movement of a fish
• State the double circulation of a mammal
• Explain the benefits of a double circulation

 

9.2 Heart
Core
• Name and recognize the arrangements of the mammalian heart, limited to the muscular wall, the septum, the left and right ventricles and atria, one-way valves and coronary arteries
• Explain that blood is pumped away from the heart into arteries and returns to the heart in veins
• Explain that the movement of the heart may be monitored by ECG, pulse rate and listening to sounds of valves closing
• Examine and explain the effect of physical activity on the pulse rate
• Describe coronary heart illness in terms of the blockage of coronary arteries and state the possible risk factors as diet, stress, smoking, genetic predisposition, age and gender

Supplement
• State and identify the atrioventricular and semilunar valves in the mammalian heart
• Explain the relative thickness: –  of the muscle wall of the left and right ventricles –  of the muscle wall of the atria compared to that of the ventricles
• Describe the position of the septum in separating oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
• Describe the working of the heart in terms of the contraction of muscles of the atria and ventricles and the action of the valves
• Clarify the effect of physical movement on the heart rate when doing the 0610 IGCSE Biology past year papers
• Argue the roles of diet and exercise in the prevention of coronary heart disease 
• Describe ways in which coronary heart disease may be treated, limited to drug treatment with aspirin and surgery (stents, angioplasty and bypass)

 

9.3 Blood and lymphatic vessels
Core
• Describe the structure and functions of arteries, veins and capillaries
• Name the key blood vessels to and from the: heart, limited to vena cava, aorta, pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein; lungs, limited to the pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein; kidney, limited to the renal artery and renal vein

Supplement
• Explain how the structures of arteries, veins and capillaries are adapted for their functions
• State the function of arterioles, venules and shunt vessels
• Outline the lymphatic system in terms of lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes
• Describe the purpose of the lymphatic structure in the flow of body fluids and the protection of the body from contagion

9.4 Blood
Core
• Outline the parts of blood as red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma when attempting to do this 0610 IGCSE Biology past year papers
• Identify red and white blood cells, as seen under the bright optical microscope, on prepared slides and in diagrams and photomicrographs
• State the reasons of the following components of blood: red blood cells in transporting oxygen (including the role of haemoglobin), white blood cells in phagocytosis and antibody production, platelets in clotting (details are not required in these IGCSE Biology past year papers), plasma in the transport of blood cells, ions, soluble nutrients, hormones and carbon dioxide

Supplement
• Identify lymphocyte and phagocyte white blood cells, as seen under the light microscope, on prepared slides and in diagrams and photomicrographs
• List the functions of: –  lymphocytes – antibody production –  phagocytes – phagocytosis
• Describe the method of clotting as the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin to form a mesh
• State the roles of blood clotting as preventing blood loss and stopping the entry of pathogens
• Describe the transmission of materials between capillaries and tissue fluid (details of the roles of water potential and hydrostatic pressure are not required when doing these 0610 IGCSE Biology past year papers)

10 Diseases and immunity
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10.1 Diseases and immunity
Core
• Describe pathogen as a disease-causing organism
• Outline transmissible disease as a disease in which the pathogen can be passed from one host to another
• State that the pathogen for a transmissible disease may be spread either through direct contact, e.g. through blood or other body fluids, or indirectly, e.g. from contaminated surfaces or food, from animals, or from the air when doing these 0610 IGCSE Biology past year papers
• Explain that the body has defences: mechanical barriers, limited to skin and hairs in the nose; chemical barriers, limited to phlegm and stomach acid; cells, limited to phagocytosis and antibody production by white blood cells; which can be enhanced by vaccination
• Explain the significance of hygienic food preparation, good personal hygiene, waste disposal and sewage treatment in regulating the spread of disease

Supplement
• State that antibodies lock on to antigens leading to direct destruction of pathogens, or marking of pathogens for destruction by phagocytes
• Explain how each pathogen has its own antigens, which have specific shapes, so specific antibodies which fit the specific shapes of the antigens are needed
• Define active immunity as defence against a pathogen by antibody production in the body
• Explain that active immunity is gained after an infection by a pathogen, or by vaccination
• Explain the process of vaccination: –  harmless pathogen given which has antigens –  antigens trigger an immune response by lymphocytes which produce antibodies –  memory cells are produced that give  long-term immunity
• Explain the role of vaccination in controlling the spread of diseases
• Explain that passive immunity is short-term defence against a pathogen by antibodies acquired from another individual, e.g. mother to infant
• State that memory cells are not produced in passive immunity when doing these IGCSE Biology past year papers
• Explain the importance of inactive immunity for breast-fed infants
• List few diseases are caused by the immune system targeting and destroying body cells, limited to Type 1 diabetes for these papers

11 Gas exchange in humans
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11.1 Gas exchange in humans
Core
• Outline the characteristics of gas exchange surfaces in humans, limited to big surface area, tinny surface, good blood supply and good ventilation with air
• Name and recognize the lungs, diaphragm, ribs, intercostal muscles, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and associated capillaries when attempting to do this 0610 IGCSE Biology past year papers 
• Distinguish the composition between inspired and expired air, limited to oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour
• Use limewater as a test for carbon dioxide to investigate the differences in composition between inspired and expired air
• Examine and explain the effects of physical activity on rate and depth of breathing

Supplement
• State the internal and external intercostal muscles
• State the purposes of the cartilage in the trachea
• Explain the role of the ribs, the internal and external intercostal muscles and the diaphragm in producing volume and pressure changes in the thorax primarily to the ventilation of the lungs
• Explaining the dissimilarities in arrangement between inspired and expired air in these 0610 IGCSE Biology past year papers
• Clarify the link between physical activity and rate and depth of breathing in terms of the increased carbon dioxide concentration in the blood, detected by the brain, causing an increased rate of breathing
• Give details the characteristics of goblet cells, mucus and ciliated cells in protecting the gas exchange system from pathogens and particles

12 Respiration
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12.1 Respiration
Core
• Outline the purposes of energy in the body of humans: muscle contraction, protein synthesis, cell division, active transport, growth, the passage of nerve impulses and the upkeep of a same body temperature
• Outline that respiration involves the action of enzymes in cells

12.2 Aerobic respiration
Core

• Defining aerobic respiration as the chemical reactions in cells in these 0610 IGCSE Biology past year papers that use oxygen to break down nutrient molecules to release energy
• Write the word equation for aerobic respiration as

 glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water

  • Explore the acceptance of oxygen by respiring organisms, such as arthropods and germinating seeds

Supplement
• Write the balanced chemical equation  for aerobic respiration as 

C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O

• Study the effect of temperature on the rate of respiration of sprouting seeds

 

12.3 Anaerobic respiration
Core
• Explain anaerobic respiration as the chemical reactions in cells that break down nutrient molecules to discharge energy without using oxygen
• Write the word equations for anaerobic respiration in muscles during vigorous exercise (glucose → lactic acid) and the microorganism yeast (glucose → alcohol + carbon dioxide)
• Write that anaerobic respiration releases much less energy per glucose molecule than aerobic respiration

Supplement
• Stating the balanced chemical equation will be examined along the way in these 0610 IGCSE Biology past year papers for anaerobic respiration in the microorganism yeast as

C6H12O6 → 2C2H5OH + 2CO2

• Outline that lactic acid builds up in muscles and blood during vigorous exercise producing an oxygen debt
• Plan how the oxygen debt is removed during recovery, limited to: aerobic respiration of lactic acid in the liver; continuation, after exercise, of fast heart rate to transport lactic acid in blood from muscles to the liver; continuance, after workout, of deeper breathing providing oxygen for aerobic breathing of lactic acid

13 Excretion in humans
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13.1 Excretion in humans
Core
• List that urea is made in the liver from extra amino acids
• List that carbon dioxide is excreted over the lungs
• List that the kidneys excrete urea and excess water and salts
• Explain that the volume and concentration of urine produced is influenced by water intake, temperature and exercise
• In this 0610 IGCSE Biology past year papers, we have to classify on drawings, diagrams and images, the ureters, bladder and urethra

Supplement
• Define the role of the liver in the assimilation of amino acids by converting them to proteins, with plasma proteins, e.g. fibrinogen
• Explain deamination as the removal of the nitrogen-containing part of amino acids to form urea
• Clarify the need for excretion, limited to toxicity of urea and carbon dioxide
• List the format of the kidney, limited to the cortex, medulla and ureter
• List the format and functioning of a kidney tubule, including: the role of the glomerulus in the filtration from the blood of water, glucose, urea and salts, the role of the tubule in the reabsorption of all of the glucose, most of the water and some salts back into the blood, leading to the concentration of urea in the urine as well as loss of excess water and salts (details of these processes are not required in these IGCSE Biology past year papers)
• Describe dialysis in terms of salt balance, the upkeep of glucose absorption and the removal of urea
• Define the use of dialysis in kidney machines
• Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of kidney transplants, compared with dialysis

14 Coordination and response
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14.1 Nervous control in humans
Core

• Identify motor (effector), relay (connector) and sensory neurones from diagrams
• Describe a simple reflex arc in terms of receptor, sensory neurone, relay neurone, motor neurones and effector
• Define a response action as a means of automatically and rapidly integrating and coordinating stimuli with the responses of effectors (muscles and glands required to know when doing these 0610 IGCSE Biology past year papers)
• Explain a synapse as a junction between two neurones
• Explain that nerve impulse as an electrical gesture that passes along nerve cells called neurones
• Pronounce the human nervous system in terms of: –  the crucial nervous system consisting of brain and spinal cord –  the peripheral nervous system –  coordination and regulation of body functions

Supplement
• Differentiate between voluntary and involuntary activities
• Describe the format of a synapse, including the presence of neurotransmitter containing vesicles, the synaptic cleft and neurotransmitter receptor molecules
• Define how an impulse causes the release of a neurotransmitter from vesicles into the synaptic gap and how the neurotransmitter diffuses across to bind with receptor molecules, in the membrane of the neurone after the synaptic gap, causing the impulse to remain
• List that in a reflex arc the synapses ensure that impulses travel in one direction only
• Outline that many drugs

14.2 Sense organs
Core
• Outline sense organs as groups of receptor cells responding to specific stimuli: light, sound, touch, temperature and chemicals
• Recognise the structures of the eye, restricted to cornea, iris, pupil, lens, retina, optic nerve and blind spot
• Define the purpose of each part of the eye, limited to: cornea, refracts light, iris, controls how much light enters pupil, lens, focuses light onto retina, retina, contains light receptors, some sensitive to light of different colours, optic nerve, carries impulses to the brain
• Clarify the pupil reflex in terms of light intensity and pupil diameter only

Supplement
• Describe the pupil reflex in terms of light intensity and antagonistic action of circular and radial muscles in the iris
• Describe accommodation to view near and distant objects in terms of the contraction and relaxation of the ciliary muscles, tension in the suspensory ligaments, shape of the lens and refraction of light
• State the distribution of rods and cones in the retina of a human
• List the meaning of rods and cones, limited to greater sensitivity of rods for night vision and three different kinds of cones absorbing light of different colours for colour vision
• Recognise the point of the fovea

 

14.3 Hormones in humans
Core

• Express a hormone as a chemical substance, created by a gland and carried by the blood, which alters the activity of one or more specific target organs 
• Recognise specific endocrine glands and their secretions, limited to adrenal glands and adrenaline, pancreas and insulin, testes and testosterone and ovaries and oestrogen
• Pronounce adrenaline as the hormone secreted in ‘fight or flight’ situations and its effects, limited to improved breathing and pulse rate and widened pupils (knowledge to do this 0610 IGCSE Biology past year papers)
• Provide examples of situations in which adrenaline secretion increases
• List the utilities of insulin, oestrogen and testosterone

Supplement
• Evaluate the role of the hormone adrenaline in the chemical control of metabolic activity, with increasing the blood glucose concentration and pulse rate
• Compare hormonal control systems and nervous in terms of speed and longevity of action

 

14.4 Homeostasis
Core
• Explain homeostasis as the maintenance of a continuous internal environment
• Name and identify on a diagram of the skin: sweat glands, receptors, sensory neurones, blood, hairs, hair erector muscles, vessels and fatty tissue
• Define the upkeep of a constant internal body temperature in humans in terms of sweating, shivering, insulation, and the role of the brain (limited to blood temperature receptors and coordination)

Supplement
• Describe that homeostasis is the control of internal conditions within set limits
• Describe the concept of control by negative feedback
• Explain the control of the glucose concentration of the blood by the liver and the roles of insulin and glucagon from the pancreas
• State the symptoms and treatment of Type 1 diabetes (detail of β cells is not required)
• Describing the maintenance of a constant internal body temperature in humans will be examined in these IGCSE Biology past year papers in terms of vasodilation and vasoconstriction of arterioles supplying skin surface capillaries

14.5 Tropic responses
Core
• Explain gravitropism as a reply in which parts of a plant grow towards or away from gravity
• Explain phototropism as a answer in which parts of a plant grow towards or away from the way from which light is coming
• Explore gravitropism and phototropism in shoots and roots

Supplement
• Explaining the phototropism and gravitropism of a shoot as examples of the chemical control of plant growth will be tested in these IGCSE Biology past year papers
• Describe the role of auxin in controlling shoot growth, limited to: auxin made in shoot tip (only), auxin spreads through the plant from the shoot tip, auxin is unequally distributed in response to light and gravity, auxin stimulates cell elongation
• Explain the use in weed killers of the synthetic plant hormone 2,4-D

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15 Drugs
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15.1 Drugs
Core
• Explain that drug as any substance taken into the body that changes or affects chemical reactions in the body

 

15.2 Medicinal drugs
Core
• Explain the purpose of antibiotics for the handling of bacterial infection
• Outline that some bacteria are unaffected to antibiotics which reduces the effectiveness of antibiotics
• State that antibiotics destroy bacteria but do not upset viruses

Supplement
• Explain how improvement of resilient bacteria such as MRSA can be reduced, limited to using antibiotics only when essential and ensuring treatment is completed
• Explaining why antibiotics kill bacteria, but do not affect viruses will be examined for these IGCSE Biology past year papers

 

15.3 Misused drugs
Core
• Explain the effects of excessive alcohol intake and misuse of heroin, limited to: powerful depressant drugs, effect on reaction times and self-control, addiction and withdrawal symptoms, negative social implications, e.g. crime
• Outline that injecting heroin can cause infections such as HIV
• State that excessive alcohol consumption can cause liver damage
• State that tobacco smoking can cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and coronary heart disease
• Describe the effects on the gas exchange system of tobacco smoke and its major toxic components, limited to carbon monoxide, nicotine and tar
• Outline that the liver is the site of breakdown of alcohol and other toxins

Supplement
• Explaining how heroin affects the nervous system, limited to its effect on the function of synapses will be tested when doing these IGCSE Biology past year papers
• Evaluate the proof for the link between smoking and lung cancer
• Evaluate the purposes of hormones to expand sporting performance, limited to testosterone and anabolic steroids

Why Should You Practicing These IGCSE Biology Past Year Papers?

These IGCSE Biology past year papers are created especially for international candidates. For over 20+ years, Cambridge have collaborated with schools and teachers worldwide to develop these papers that are suitable for different nations, different types of institutes and for learners with a wide range of abilities.

Practicing these Cambridge IGCSE Biology past year papers enables a person to: 
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• develop their understanding of the technological world
• take an well-versed interest in scientific matters 
• recognise the benefits (and limitations) of scientific method, and how to apply this to other disciplines and in day to day activity
• build relevant approaches, such as a concern for accuracy and precision, objectivity, integrity, enquiry, initiative and inventiveness
• build an interest in, and care for, the environment
• better understand the influences and disadvantages placed on scientific study by society, economy, technology, ethics, the community and the environment
• build an understanding of the scientific skills essential for both further study and everyday life.

This IGCSE Biology past year papers balance a detailed knowledge and understanding of a subject and benefit to build the skills learners need for their next steps in learning or job.

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